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Inglés. Manual de gramática (3/3)

Autor: Héctor Orobio Valencia
Curso:
9,50/10 (4 opiniones) |9409 alumnos|Fecha publicación: 30/10/2009
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Capítulo 13:

 Artículos en inglés

Word before noun: a word used with a noun that specifies whether the noun is definite or indefinite.

Indefinite Article

[stressed, ay unstressed, ə]

CORE MEANING: the indefinite article, used before a singular countable noun to refer to one person or thing not previously known or specified, in contrast with "the," referring to somebody or something known to the listener

 I need a new car.

indefinite article

A.    indicates type: used before a noun to indicate that somebody or something has some of the same qualities as the person or thing mentioned

 a Hercules

 He's a genius.

B.     one:used instead of "one" with words of measurement

  a teaspoonful of salt

C.     per:in each or in every

  twice a day

D.    indicates somebody not known personally: used to indicate somebody not personally known, but known of

 There's a Mr. O'Flynn here to see you.

E.     any:used in negative structures to emphasize a complete absence of something

 He doesn't have a hope!

[ Old English, shortening of ān (see one)]

F.      a or an?

A is the form of the indefinite article used before words that are pronounced with an initial consonant sound (even if the spelling does not begin with a consonant): a banana; a hunk; a ewe. An is used before words that begin with a vowel sound (even if an unpronounced consonant comes first): an elephant; an heir. The same rule regarding sound rather than spelling applies to abbreviations: a CD but an LP. The practice of using an before words beginning with h and an unstressed syllable (for example, an hotel, an historic occasion) is falling out of use, and it is much more usual now to hear a hotel and a historic occasion, with the h sounded.

Definite Article

the [stressed/emphatic, ee unstressed; before a vowel, eeunstressed; before a consonant, ə]

CORE MEANING: an adjective, the definite article, used before a noun denoting somebody or something that has already been mentioned or identified, or something that is understood by both the speaker and hearer, as distinct from "a" or "an"

 The movie ended with the hero riding off into the desert.

 The food was excellent but the service was poor.

A.    Adjective

Indicating one as distinct from another: used to refer to one in particular of a number of things or people, identified as distinct from all others by the use of a modifier.

§      Put them in the small bag.

§      the door on the left

§      the girl who answered the phone

§      the right to vote

§      the points made earlier

B.    Indicating Generic Class: used to refer to a person or thing considered generically or universally

§      Exercise is good for the heart.

§      She played the violin.

§      The dog is a loyal pet. 

C.     Indicating Shared Experience: used to refer to objects and concepts associated with the shared experience of a culture, society, or community.

§      go to the hospital

§      thinking about the future

§      lying in the sun 

D.    All People Of Particular Type: used before adjectives to refer generically to people of a particular type or class.

§      new measures to help the unemployed

§      They say the good always die young.

 

E.     Titles And Names: used before titles and some names such as place names

§      the king of Spain

§      the Times newspaper

§      the president of the United States 

F.     Qualifying Names And Titles: used in names and titles before adjectives and nouns that distinguish somebody from others of the same name or title.

§      Ivan the Terrible

§      Henry the Fifth 

G.    Indicating Parts Of Body: used instead of a possessive such as "my" or "your" to refer to a part of somebody's body.

§      patted him on the head

§      took her by the hand

 

H.    Indicating Most Famous Or Important: the best, only, or most outstanding.

§      It's the place to be. 

I.       Expressing Rates And Ratios: used to indicate how many units apply to each or every thing measured.

§      Available at $60 the ton 

J.      Indicating Family Relationship: used instead of a possessive such as "your" or "my" to refer to somebody having a particular family relationship (informal).

§      Give my regards to the family.

§      How's the wife? 

K.    Period Of Time: used to refer to a period of time, especially a decade or an era.

·       Living in the sixties 

L.     Adverb, Adjective

to that extent: used adverbially to emphasize that somebody or something is true to a particular extent (used before comparatives).

§      She looks the better for her holiday.

§      The worse for wear 

M.  Adverb

by how much or by that much: used adverbially to indicate how one amount or quality changes in relation to another (used before each of two comparative adjectives or adverbs).

·       The cheaper the better

·       The more you exercise, the fitter you'll feel.

STRUCTURES
1. ONEIdentification 
SUBJECTSI.LV. TOBEPREDIC. NOMINATIVE
Thisisa book
   
2. TWOPlacing 
SUBJECTSI.LV. TO BEPREDIC. ADVERBIAL
Theison the talbe
   
3. THREEQualifying 
SUBJECTSI.LV. TO BEPREDIC. ADJECTIVE
The bookisinteresting
   
4. FOURDiscribing habitual actions 
SUBJECTSINTRANS. VERB 
SheReads 
   
5. FIVEDiscribing a present action 
SUBJECTSTRANS. VERBDirect object
Shereadsa book
   
6. SIXDiscribing emotions 
SUBJECTSINT. LINKING VERBPREDIC. ADJECTIVE
Hefeelshappy
   
7. SEVENDiscribing personal interactions
SUBJECTSTRANS. VERBIND. OBJECTDIRECT OBJECT
Shebuysmea book
    
8. EIGHTINT. LINK VERBPREDIC. NOMINATIVE
SUBJECTSI.LV. TO BEPREDIC. NOMINATIVE
Heisa doctor
   
9. NINEExpresing concepts
SUBJECTSTRANS. VERBDIR. OBJ.OBJEC. COMPL.
Sheconsidershima good friend
    
10. TENDiscribing events  
SUBJECTSTRANS. VERBDIR. OBJ.OBJEC. COMPL.
Shewatchedhimread
Shewatchedhimreading
Shekeepsthe doorclosed
Hefindsenglisheasy

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