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Basic Spanish for foreigners

Autor: Ricardo Roque Mateos
Curso:
9,17/10 (12 opiniones) |3254 alumnos|Fecha publicación: 17/03/2006
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Capítulo 2:

 First phrases

You already know some Spanish words, here are some international words that we can use also in Spanish. 

Bar, Sandwich, Taxi, Parking, Manager, Marketing, Pub, Stress, Cafeteria (Cafe), Gas, ticket  also names of minerals and elements in Latin, sciences and medical specialities (Cardiologia, Urologia etc...) it only changes slightly the end.

The words of Latin origin are changed very easily from English:  Action= Accion, Extraction= extraccion, constelation= constelacion etc.

Latin and greek adverbs such as Rarely, Purely, Naturally etc change into -amente.

Rarely= raramente  Purely= puramente  Naturally= naturalmente.

Latin expressions don´t change:  Gratis, Pro forma, Quid pro quo.

The latin and greek prefixes and sufixes are also in Spanish:

Re= again      Re-make= Rehacer (only changes the verb as its natural)

Anti= Against      Antiterrorista          Trans= through      transporte   etc.

Word finishing in the greek sufix -ist in English are in Spanish  -ista (except for some exceptions like scientist).

Usually these words ending in T in English (latin-greek ones) come to Spanish as  -Te

President= Presidente      Important= Importante etc.

Words like Impact, Tact, Contact etc will be done like:    Impacto, Tacto, Contacto.

It will take you some time to identify these latin words in other languages, but once you know the method, a phrase like   "A taxi normally transports a person" would be "Un taxi normalmente transporta una persona" .

               Starting with the initial words.

 . The days of the week from Monday to Sunday:     Lunes (monday), Martes, Miercoles, Jueves, Viernes, Sabado, Domingo (sunday).

. The seasons:    Primavera, Verano, Otoño, Invierno (Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter)

. The colours:  Rojo (Red)  Amarillo (Yellow)  Naranja (orange)  Verde (Green)  Azul (Blue) Marron (brown)   Blanco (white)  Negro  (black)   Gris (Grey)

The plural and gender of the colours:   Rojo is masculine, to make the feminine we simply put an A  

Roja= Red (feminine names)   To make the feminine plural we put an S   Rojas.

La casa= The house (finishes in A, so house is feminine)

La casa es roja= the house is red         Las casas son rojas= the houses are red

                                                 ES= IS          SON= ARE

Naranja already finishes in the masculine case in A, so we don´t have to change anything.

It´s the same for masculine and feminine.

El libro es naranja= the book is orange      Una casa es naranja= a house is orange

For plural:    

Los libros son naranjas= the books are orange    Las casas son naranjas= the houses are orange

Verde finishes in E, another ending we don´t have to worry about, because it´s the same for masculine and feminine.

Un libro verde      La casa es verde      Los libros son verdes      Unas casas son verdes

Azul also doesn´t finish in O or A, so it also doesn´t change, notice how we make the plural adding -ES, because it ends in a consonant (it would be very difficult to pronounce AZULS, so we add an E, AZULES 

This happens with all the plurals when there is a consonant in the end.

El libro es azul    La casa es azul    Los libros son azules   Las casas son azules

Marron= Marrones   (Las casas son marrones, Los libros son marrones)

Gris= Grises  (Las casas son grises, los libros son grises) La casa es gris, El libro es gris.

Negro finishes in an O, it makes the feminine in A and the plural with S

Las casas negras= the black houses       Unos libros negros= some black books

                                                             LESSON FOUR

More words for our vocabulary

Fem:     Mesa= table          Silla= chair            Puerta= door     Ventana= window    Pared= wall

Masc:   Horno=  oven        Queso= cheese    Perro= dog        Pollo= Chicken          Amigo= friend

What does it mean?....

Me gusta la casa blanca=        I like the white house   

Necesito llamar a Sergio=          I need to call Sergio

Me gustan los libros amarillos=  I like the yellow books

El horno es blanco=                    The oven is white

Los perros son marrones=           The dogs are brown

Tengo el telefono de un amigo de Alfredo=   I have the phone of a friend of Alfredo.

Las sillas de mi casa son grises=   The chairs of my house are grey

Me gusta el pollo del restaurante de mi amigo= I like the chicken of the restaurant of my friend.

The preposition  OF in Spanish is   DE.      When we have DE + EL we contract it in  DEL

We already know about the gender, the plural, colours, days of the week and we begin to see the logic of simple phrases.  

VOCABULARY

Bus = Bus                        Barco = Ship                   Avion = Plane                   Coche = Car

Hombre = man             Mujer = Woman             Chico = Boy                      Chica = Girl

Niño = little boy            Niña = little girl                Jefe = Boss                        Policía = Police

Padre = Father             Madre = Mother              Hijo = son                          Hija = daughter

Hermano = brother      Hermana = sister            Primo = cousin                  Prima = cousin (fem.)

Abuelo = grandfather   Nieto = grandson         Abuela = Grandmother    Nieta = Grandaughter

Tío = uncle                       Tía = aunt                      Pa = dad                            Ma = mom

Mi padre es un policía = My father is a policeman

Tengo un hermano en Australia = I have a brother in Australia

El coche de mi abuelo es gris = The car of my grandfather is grey

Los trenes en España son amarillos = The trains in Spain are yellow

Tengo un barco verde, mi jefe tiene uno rojo = I have a green ship, my boss has a red one

Capítulo siguiente - Parts we need
Capítulo anterior - Introduction

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