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Basic Spanish for foreigners

Autor: Ricardo Roque Mateos
Curso:
9,17/10 (12 opiniones) |3254 alumnos|Fecha publicación: 17/03/2006
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Capítulo 6:

 Completing grammar

LESSON FOURTEEN  

La comida   Let's learn now all the vocabulary related with the food:  
Carne = Meat                                  
Pescado = Fish                             
Verdura/s = vegetables  
Postre = Dessert                              
Pasta = Pasta                                
Fruta = fruit   Marisco = seafood                         
Algas = seaplants                         
Arroz = rice  
Filete = filet                                  
Costillas / Costilletas / Chuletas = chops / ribs / cutlets  
Sopa = Soup                                    
Zumo = juice                                
Batido = milkshake  
Helado = icecream                        
Agua = water                               
Vino = wine   Leche = milk                                    
Tomate = tomato                         
Lechuga = lettuce  
Maiz = corn                                      
Ensalada = salad                         
Pollo = chicken  
Aceite = oil                                       
Mantequilla = butter                  
Manzana = apple  
Naranja = orange                           
Pl á tanos = bananas (also used "bananas")  
Cerezas = cherries                           
Fresas = strawberries                   
Azucar = sugar  
Sal = salt                                            
Nata = cream                              
Cereales = Cereals  
Patatas = potatos / chips                 
Zanahoria = carrot                     
Cebolla = onion  
Ajo = garlic                                        
Harina = flour                               
Pastel = pie  
Tarta = cake                                      
Salsa = sauce / gravy                 
Jamón = ham    

When we make a sandwich with normal bread it's called "Bocadillo", in southamerica it's called "Emparedado", both terms accepted by the Royal Academy of Language.   Everything that we put in these sandwiches or bocadillos consisting of meat is Embutido. So, sausages would be embutido, bacon would be embutido. We can translate this word by "dried meat products".     In the restaurant...   -Hola buenos d í as, ¿ Que van a tomar?  Hello good morning, what are you going to have?   -Para mi mujer una sopa de verduras,  un filete de pollo con tomate y patatas. Yo voy a tomar sopa de marisco, ensalada de lechuga y pescado con patatas.   -For my wife, a vegetable soup, chicken filet with tomato and chips. I am going to have seafood soup, salad with lettuce and fish with chips.   -Excelente elección, en cinco minutos estoy aqu í con la comida.   -Excellent choice, in 5 minutes I am here with the food .   -De acuerdo Gracias   Ok thanks.     Let's analize:   TOMAR = TO TAKE, but only for restaurants and bars (for transports is quite old fashioned) we also will use it with notes "Tomar notas" = To take notes.   If you want to use TO TAKE you must translate it like COGER for all the other cases.   De acuerdo = I agree, O.K, all correct... (remember this one, it's very used)   We have seen  Mujer = woman / wife, for husband we must say Marido To say "Mi Hombre" would be so strange as to say "My man and me will go to the dinner tomorrow".

UNIDADES DE TIEMPO  
Segundo = second                         Minuto = minute                           
Hora = Hour   D ía = day                Mes = month                                 
Año = year   Siglo = century             Medio/a = half                              
Cuarto = quarter      
Son las tres = It's three o'clock         
Es la una = it's one o'clock      
Son las seis = it's six o'clock (always with the article to say the time)  
Son las dos y media = It's half past two                
Son las tres y cuarto = it's a quarter past 3.00  
Son las cinco menos cuarto = it's a quarter to five    
Son las seis y veinte = it's 20 past six  
Es la una menos cinco = it's five minutes to one  
For precise time we would say  "son las catorce treinta y dos" = 14.32   To express the time period we will say " son las seis de la mañana" = it's six in the morning or, " son las tres de la tarde" = it's three in the afternoon.  

   LESSON FIFTEEN     THE  DIFFERENT PRONOUNS

Este libro es mío = This book is mine           Este es mi libro = This is my book  
Estas son mis casas = These are my houses     Estas casas son mias = These houses are mine  
Mi libro es verde, el tuyo es rojo = My book is green, yours is red ("the yours")  
Su amigo trabaja en mi oficina = His friend works in my office  
Tu mujer es muy amiga de la mia = Your wife is very friend of mine (of my wife)  
Vuestro coche es nuevo = your car is new  
Nuestras tiendas preferidas est án en el centro = our favourite shops are in the center      
With me, with him...   Conmigo = with me                  
Contigo = with you            Con el = with him  
Con nosotros =  with us ...  The rest are totally regular    

Puedes ir conmigo en el coche = you can come with me in the car      

REFLEXIVES  

ctions that we can do to others or to ourselves, for example : We can wash somebody else or we can wash ourselves.  Let's see this example :  

LAVAR = TO WASH   yo lavo = I wash     yo lavo el coche = I wash the car.   To indicate I wash myself, I wash her, She washes herself etc. we will use these pronouns     Yo me lavo = I wash myself   Tu te lavas = You wash yourself   El se lava = He washes himself   Ella se lava = She washes herself   Nosotros nos lavamos = we wash ourselves   Vosotros os lavais = you wash yourselves   Ellos se lavan = they wash themselves   To make the action to another person we will use almost the same pronouns except for a few exceptions.   Yo te lavo = I wash you             Tu me lavas = You wash me      Yo os lavo = I wash you (plur.)   But...  Yo le lavo = I wash him   Yo lo lavo = I wash it (masc.)  Yo la lavo = I wash her (and it fem.)   Yo les lavo = I wash them        Tu les lavas = You wash them     Ella les lava = She washes them   The pronoun in this last column stays the same, only changes the person doing the action and of course the verb   I wash who?  I wash them  You wash who? you wash them...

THEM stays the same...only I wash, you wash is changing.   Remember =      Se when he does it to himself  Le when somebody does it to him.    

EXAMPLES :     Yo hablo a Antonio = Yo le hablo     I speak to Antonio, I speak to him   Clara me habla = Clara speaks to me   Yo hablo a Clara = Yo le hablo  I speak to Clara, I speak to her   Me gusta comer = I like to eat       Le gusta comer = He/she likes to eat   Le gusta = He/she likes       Se gusta = he/she likes himself / herself     When we have the pronoun of person (me, te, le...) plus the pronoun of thing masc. or fem. (lo/la) it goes like this:  

COMPRAR = TO BUY   Yo le compro un libro a Antonio = I buy a book for Antonio Yo lo compro para Antonio = I buy it for Antonio Yo le lo compro = WRONG!!!    To not have so many LLLL in the sentence we do it with:  

YO SE LO COMPRO = I buy IT to HIM (Se in this case doesn't have any "for himself" implications.  

We will be seeing the use of these pronouns in the sentences and texts. Right now don't worry if you don't understand them, just try to memorize them and in the future we will be learning where they are placed.

SINGULAR     PLURAL           SINGULAR                         PLURAL

mi    my

mis

(el) mío, (la) mía mine

(los) mios, (las) mias

tu     your

tus

(el) tuyo, (la) tuya  yours

(los) tuyos, (las) tuyas

su   his/her

sus 

(el) suyo, (la) suya) his/hers

(los) suyos, (las) suyas

nuestro, -a   our

nuestros, -as

(el) nuestro, (la) nuestra ours

(los) nuestros, (las) nuestras

vuestro, -a  your

vuestros, -as

(el) vuestro, (la) vuestra yours

(los) vuestros, (las) vuestras

su   their

sus

(el) suyo, (la) suya theirs

(los) suyos, (las) suyas

Capítulo siguiente - CHAPTER 7: VERBS AND TIMES
Capítulo anterior - Getting what we need

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